English Grammatical Tips 2 ff

English Grammatical Tips 2 bb


English Grammatical Tips for Writing Scientific Papers

Writing better college papers and presenting advanced researches in international conferences by paying attention to some English grammatical tips


 

Written by:

Dr. Hamid Shirkhanloo

Dr. Mojtaba Arjomandi

Shahnaz Teimoori

 

Publisher:
MirMah
Dr. Hamid Shirkhanloo:
Editor in chief of AMECJ (Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry Journal)
Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)
Dr. Mojtaba Arjomandi:
English Editor of AMECJ, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)
Shahnaz Teimoori:
Ph.D. student in Environmental Engineering
Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran

Contents


Acknowledgment
Preface
Chapter 1: Tips on How to Write a Scientific Paper and Select the Subject of a Thesis
Purpose of Writing a Scientific Paper
How to write a research paper
A Guideline of Writing a Review Paper (or a Review Article)
Reasons of Rejection of Papers
What to Do When Your Paper Is Rejected
Chapter 2: Grammars of Subjunctives, Conditions, and Modifiers
Tag questions
Subjunctive moods
Subjunctive verbs
Subjunctive adjectives Conditional Sentences
Five Types of Conditional Sentences
Dangling and misplaced modifier
Chapter 3: Crucial Punctuation Marks
Importance of Punctuation marks
Comma and viz.
Comma and i.e.
Comma and e.g.
Dashes and Hyphens
Hanging hyphens
Comma
Semicolon
Colon
Comma and So
Are we allowed to Use a Comma Before “So”?
A Quick Trick for Deciding If You Need a Comma before “So”
Commas with dates
Comma with etc.
Is Oxford or serial comma essential?
Chapter 4: Other Vital Grammatical Tips for Writing Scientific Papers
Affect and Effect
Affect and effect
About increase and its preposition
In addition and in addition to
Although and But
Data and Datum References Tips
Which and that
Grammatical tip about “Gerund + of”
Grammatical tip about the rest
Grammatical tip about “The number of” and “a number of”
Grammatical tip about “Among and between”
Among and Amongst
Abbreviation and Acronym
Is it OK to use “and/or” in scientific writings?
Grammatical tips of causative verbs Difference between “made of” and “made from”
How to use “As”
Because (or cos), because of, and due to
Using small or capital letters
Appendixes
Appendix A. How to write a letter
Appendix B. Separable and Inseparable Phrasal Verbs
Appendix C. Irregular Verbs List
Appendix D. Knowing about the best authors of Grammar of English Language
References

 

Preface


This book has been written to help students, researchers, and scientists who want to write their academic papers or present their researches in conferences. Indeed, this book is not complete and it must be revised and changed many times. I have learned a lot of grammatical tips in Iran Language Institute (ILI), Tehran Times Press (TTP), Kish Institute, Geology Survey of Iran (GSI), Soil and Water Research Center. Moreover, I am very much indebted and owe a debt of gratitude toward a lot of nice and outstanding professors such as Deceased Jane Straus (GrammarBook—bluebook of grammar, USA), Lester Kaufman (GrammarBook—bluebook of grammar, USA), Mary Morel (OnlineWritingTraining, Australia), Seonaid Beckwith (Perfect-English, Canada), Steven Gorelick (Stanford University), Babak Khanzadeh (ILI), Hosein (ILI), Sadeghzade (ILI), Ali Saki (TTP), and Khanbaygi taught me a lot of grammatical tips; I have worked as a Scientific English Editor in some journals such as Analytical Methods in Environmental Chemistry (AMECJ owned by Prof. Dr. Hamid Shirkhanloo). Moreover, some invaluable and profound comments of Dr. Mehdi Mohammadi and Maryam Rashtchi (RIPI) have enhanced my writing. In September 21, 2016, I started to work as an editor in the journal of Petroleum Science and Technology in Research Institute of Petroleum Industry. The first paper which has been edited has been written by chines researchers, one of them asked me to mention the reason of every edition or change. Then the researcher asked me ―could you please introduce an English Grammar Book, which has focused on scientific examples, to me?‖ This query struck my mind, motivated, and inspired me to start or commence writing this book. In this book, on some grammatical tips such as ‗tag questions‘, ‗subjunctive moods (subjunctive adjectives and verbs)‘, ‗conditional sentences‘, ‗hyphens and dashes‘, ‗comma and relative pronouns‘, and ‗dangling and misplaced modifier‘ have been focused. Also, I (as a Scientific English Editor) have finished the Bachelor of Science of Geology, Master of Science of Geology, and PhD of Water Engineering (hydrogeology); moreover, it should be mentioned I have studied geology, hydrogeology, geophysics, and lovely language (English Language) in sync.
In the first chapter, the purpose of writing a scientific paper (research paper and scientific paper) and how to write a scientific paper especially a comprehensive review paper is explained. Moreover, in this chapter, the
reasons of rejection of papers and what to do when a paper is rejected considered and explained. In addition, this chapter help you revise your paper confidently. In the second chapter, some grammatical rules based on the errors which have been seen in a lot of scientific conferences and papers especially in the fields related to petroleum, environment, and geology are considered. These grammatical rules are tag questions, subjunctive moods, subjunctive verbs, subjunctive adjectives, five types of conditional sentences, dangling and misplaced modifier. In the third chapter, importance of punctuation marks such as comma, hyphen etc., in scientific papers, is explained. Moreover, in this chapter, abbreviations and acronyms, some grammatical tips about the subject verb agreement of ―the rest,‖ ―a number of,‖ and ―the number of‖ is considered. In the third chapter, about the difference of ―between‖ and ―among,‖ ―so‖ needs comma before itself or not,‖ the difference of ―affect‖ and ―effect,‖ ―increase and its preposition,‖ difference between ―in addition and in addition to,‖ ―don‘t use ‗but‘ and ‗although‘ with each other for making a contrast between two clauses,‖ ―but is a coordinating conjunction,‖ difference between ―but‖ and ―although,‖ difference between ―Data and datum,‖ reference tips how to use "as,"
situation of the relative pronouns ―which‖ and ―that‖ before defining clauses and only which before non-defining clauses are explained. In the appendixes, some letters written by outstanding authors, inseparable and separable phrasal verbs, past simple and past participle of irregular verbs, and about the best authors of writing the grammar of English Language have been selected for helping students get more information about writing letters in research institutes and universities. Moreover, a lot of examples and texts have been selected from journals of Elsevier, Springer etc. In addition, we try to help you remember that you must mention the unit and dimension of each parameter and variable, if it doesn‘t have any units and dimensions, you have to mention that the parameter or variable is dimensionless. Also, it is not rational that you show yourself by using awkward words. Certainly, this book has a lot of deficiencies of grammatical tips and tips for scientific writing. Therefore, your comments help us revise it more and more until a standard book for writing a scientific paper will be published in the future.
Moreover, during each stage of my education and writing every paper and book, my nice, compassionate, sympathetic and dedicated mother Aminah (or Ameneh) Saberi Kushkeghaziwho has been an outstanding teacher (and she is the first teacher who has taught me English language), and my nice
and erudite brother Dr. Mostafa Arjomandi have encouraged and helped me a lot. Moreover, Prof. Dr. Hamid Shirkhanloo who is the editor in chief of Analytical Methods in Environmental chemistry Journal has helped and supported me in accomplishing and publishing this book. At the end, it is worthwhile to mention that using at least two dictionaries are so important during editing. Please check your scientific expressions in a scientific dictionary or at least search them in Google Scholar. Unfortunately, I (as a Scientific English Editor) have seen that a lot of students try to write the sentences in the passive patterns (or passive voice sentences) while some verbs are intransitive and when dangling modifiers, which are inappropriate to scientific papers, are used. Moreover, in this book, there are a lot of mistakes, and we are cordially welcome all students and professors who help us revise it in the best way. Furthermore, it is very kind of you to send your profound e-mails via the following e-mails: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., "Jane Straus" <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;, "Mary" <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;, "Mary Morel" <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;, "seonaid" <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.;, (Also, you can ask all members of Grammarbook (not only in USA but also in other countries) your questions related to upper advanced grammar via the following e-mails: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)


 

 

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Publisher: AMECJ